Mengenal Film Animasi Dan Cara Pembuatannya
Asal Mula Film Cartoon / Animation
Animation is a technique that many sutu used in the film world today, both as a unified whole, part of a movie, or one with a live movie. The world is actually rooted in the photographic film, while rooted in the world of animated drawings, which illustrate graphic design (visual communication design). Through the history of each, both photography and illustration have new dimensions and shape in the live and animated films.
It could be argued that the animation is a medium that was born from the two conventions or disciplines, namely clan movie images. In order to understand the clan wear animation techniques, the two conventions should be interpreted and understood.
The film, usually used for recording a state, or express something. Film used to fulfill a common requirement, namely to communicate an idea, message or reality. Because of the uniqueness of its dimensions, the clan because of the nature of entertainment, the film has been accepted as one of the audiovisual media the most popular and mainstream. Because it is also regarded as the most effective media.
To be able to use the film media, there are two main problems to be faced, namely technical problems technical problems clan movie suggests something premises film or so-called presentation techniques. So it is with things that should be known in the animated film, that is the problem animation techniques, and technical problems communicating something with animation techniques. Often words communicate more familiar technique of art is said to communicate.
In fact this is very closely related to various fields of arts activities, both visually and verbally or teateral. For a communications planner, the event was very important to understand. A film maker will deal with technical problems made the film and the art of making movies.
All the things written in this discussion, not a constraint, but a way of seeing and a summary of issues that must be developed.
Origins of Animation Techniques
Human desire to create an image or santiran (image) that live and move as pantara from disclosure (expression) them, a manifestation of the basic form of animation that life evolved. The word itself is actually an animated adaptation of the word animation, which is derived from the basic to animate, in general English-Indonesian dictionary meaning turn (Wojowasito 1997). In general, the animation is an activity switch, moving inanimate objects; An inanimate object is given a boost of strength, spirit and emotions to be alive and moving, or just a memorable life.
In fact, since ancient times, humans have tried menganimasi their motion pictures of animals, as found by the archaeologist in northern Spain Lascaux cave, had lived two hundred thousand years more; They are trying to capture fast motion running animals, such as wild boar, bison or horse, described by eight feet in different positions and overlapping (Hallas and Manvell 1973:23).
Ancient Egyptians turn their image with the order of the pictures of the wrestlers who are struggling, as a wall decoration. Created around 2000 BC (Thomas 1958:8)
Ancient Japanese paintings show a life storyline, with the stage scrolls of paintings, created in the Heian period (794-1192) (Encyclopaedia Americana volume 19, 1976). Then came the toy called Thaumatrope around the 19th century in Europe, a sheet of thick cardboard discs, bearing the bird in a cage, which both sides left a rope tied to his right, when twisted by hand will give a copying pictures of birds was moving (Laybourne 1978:18) .
Until the 1880s, Jean Marey using streak camera is continuously recording the movement of birds flying, human activities and other animals. A tool that became the forerunner of life that develops the film camera to date. And in 1892, Emile Reynauld develop a toy called Praxinoscope ayng animated images, a series of hundreds of animated images are rotated and projected on a mirror into a motion movie, a tool precursor in cinema projector (Laybourne 1978:23).
Both novice filmmaker cinema, came from France, the dianggapsebagai initial opening of the development of animated film techniques (Encyclopedia AmericanavoLV1, 1976:740)
Ten years later after the movie live her thrive in the late 19th century. In 1908, Emile Cohl beginners from France make a simple animated film in the form of a matchstick figures. The series of images of black blabar (black line) made on a white sheet, was photographed with the film negative so that the visible figure and background to white to black.
While in the United States of Winsor McCay (see picture beside) to make an animated film "Gertie the Dinosaur" in 1909. Figure blabar drawn in black with a white background. Following in the following years the American animators began to develop an animated film techniques around the year 1913 until the early 1920s, Max Fleischer develop "Ko Ko The Clown" and Pat Sullivan to make "Felix The Cat". The series of images made as simple as possible, where the figure is drawn blabar united black or black shadow with a black background blabar basis or made otherwise. McCay made a movie with a calculation formula of time, 16 times per second in motion pictures.
Fleischer and Sullivan have made use of animation techniques sell, that is transparent sheets of celluloid material (Celluloid) called "cell". Other Starter in Germany, Lotte Reineger, in 1919 to develop an animated film shadow, and Bertosch of France, in 1930 set up an experiment animated piece with a figure derived from pieces of wood. The following figure is the figure "Gertie The Dinosaurs", and "Felix the Cat"
George Pal started using the dolls as a figure in a short animated film, in 1934 in the Netherlands. And Alexsander Ptushko of Russian dolls length animated film "The New Gulliver" in 1935.
In 1935 Len Lye from Canada, started drawing directly on film after entering the renewal of the color film through the film "Color of the Box." The development of the most important animated film technique, which is around the 1930's. Where can appear animated film voiced pioneered by Walt Disney of the United States, through the movie "Mickey Mouse", "Donald Duck" and "Silly Symphony" made during the years 1928 to 1940.
In 1931 Disney made an animated film is the first color in the film "Flowers and Trees". And the first length animated film made Disney cartoon in 1938, the film "Snow White and Seven Dwarfs."
Thus the origin of the development of film animation technique that continues to grow with the style and characteristics of each maker in many countries in Europe, in America and spread through countries in Asia. Especially in Japan, cartoons expand fast enough in there, until the decade this year over cartoons animated film market here with the characteristics and distinctive style.
Attitude Principle of Animation Film
Animated films comes from two disciplines, namely the film is rooted in the world of photography and animation is rooted in the world picture. The word comes from the English language film that has been in Indonesiakan, meaning we can see in the general dictionary Indonesian:
"1 item thin as the membrane is made of celluloid negative portrait of four images (which will be played in portrait or cinema), 2 story (stories) picture of life;" (Poerwadarminfa 1984)
Basically a thorough understanding of the film difficult to explain. New can be interpreted if viewed from the context; such as used to print portraits of negative or plate, the film implies a celluloid sheet chemically processed before it can be seen the results, or which relate to the story or play, the film contains an understanding as a motion picture or a series of images moving-image into a storyline that people watch, a movie that contains the basic elements of light, sound and time.
While the animation in particular understanding can we refer to the encyclopaedia "Americana":
"Animated, motion picture consisting of a series of invidual hand-drawn Sketches, in the which the positions or gestures of the figures are Varied Slightly from one sketch to another. Generally, the series is the movie and, Pls projected on a screen, That figures suggest are moving "(Encyclopedia Americana vol. V1, 1976).
Technique animated film, just as it does the movie live, to permit the calculation of the film that runs consecutive keceaptan between 18 to 24 images per second.
Images are projected onto the screen was not moving, that look is apparent motion, happens to our senses due to small changes from one picture to another, adanaya a phenomenon that occurs when we see, called Persistence of Vision, so as to produce an illusion of motion from our view.
Unlike the movie life, the picture is taken from shooting a moving object, and then analyzed one by one into a number of still images at every frame of celluloid.
While animated films, motion pictures are created by analyzing images per image or frame by frame by the animator, and then recorded image after image or motion by motion by using stop-frame camera, the camera using the tool driving machine frame by frame, ie homing celluloid frame by frame, with a calculation time required for each one second frame 24 opening camera to record images, the motion to celluloid.
Some Types of Animation Techniques
Based on the material or basic material object animation is used, the general type of animated film techniques were classified two major parts, the animated film bi-dimension (flat animation) and animated films tridimensional (object animation).
Dwi-dimension animation film (flat animation)
Type of animated film is entirely explained using materials that can be drawn on its surface. Called also kind of animated film image, because almost all animated objects through a series of pictures. All work undertaken this type of film animation is done on flat planes or explained.
Several types of bi-dimension animation films are:
a. Film animation cells (Cel Technique)
Type this animated film is the basic technique of film animation cartoon (cartoon animation). This animation technique utilizing a series of images made on the sheet of transparent plastic, called a cell.
Drawn animated features its own on top of the cell for each change of a moving image, except that there are parts of a silent, that is the background (background), made for each scene, drawn larger than a sheet of elongated cells.
Sheets of cells and background were given an aperture on one side, for mounting standard page on the table while animators at the pictures, and tables seat when photographed.
b. Directly on the movie depiction
Unlike the other animated movies, this animated film types using imaging techniques animated objects created directly on celluloid, either positive or negative, without going through the series stop shooting the camera frame, for a work of art needs to be disclosure. Or that are experimental, look for something new.
Animation Film Tri-dimension (Object Animation)
Overall, the type of animated film using the technique of tri-series dimension of the same type of bi-dimension animation, the difference between animated objects used in the form of tri-dimension. Taking into account the character animation objects, the nature of the material used, time, light and space.
To work the tri-dimension objects, even though it may be, but quite difficult to implement, because the nature of the material used has a limited space. Unlike other types., Animated pictures, free melakukanberbagai the desired movement.
Based on the shape and materials used, including the type of animated films are:
a. Film Animation Puppet (Puppet Animation)
Object animation used in this animated film is a kind dolls and other figures, is a simplification of natural forms of existing objects, made of materials that have properties lentuk (plastic) and easy to move when taking the picture frame by frame, such as wood material easily carved or engraved, fabric, paper, wax, clay, etc., to be able to create characters that are not rigid and too simple.
b. Film Animation Models
Object tri-dimension animation in this movie kind of shape animation macammacam ayng not a puppet and the like, such as other forms of abstark; block, sphere, prism, pyramid, cylinder, cone and others. Or form a model, a model form of actual size, such as molecules in a chemical form, the globe.
Form of simple animated objects, its use is not too complicated and does not require much movement, the material used consisted of wood, hard plastic and other hard materials that conformed to the character of the material properties owned, but by no means lentuk material not used.
Also called non-animated movie figure, because the whole story does not need leaders or other figures. Type of film technique that utilizes the cell sheet is a consideration of saving the image, with a separate part of the animated objects that move, made some drawings as needed; and parts that do not move, just made once.
c. Animation Film Cuts (Cut-out Animation)
This animated film types, including the use of simple techniques and easy. Animated figure or object designed, drawn on a sheet of paper and then cut in accordance with the form that has been made, and placed on a flat surface as background. Shooting is done by direct analysis of each movement by hand, according denagn story demands.
With simple techniques, motion animated figures or objects to be limited so karakternyapun limited as well. The character figure is made separately, usually, consists of seven different sections: head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs. To move and turn the characters, the separation is adjusted to the demands of story bias, can be made less than the earlier or more.
d. Shadow Animation Film (Silhoutte Animation)
Like the leather puppet show, the kind of animated film uses almost the same way, animated figures or objects in the form of shadows with a light background, because the lighting is behind the layer.
Technique used together with a piece of animated films, ie figures drawn and cut according to the shapes drawn and placed in the background at the table camera holder to be photographed. The difference here, the paper used is not as animated pieces, colored paper or materials are colored according to the needs, while the shadow entirely animated film using paper materials in dark or black in color, be it figure or other animated objects.
e. Film Animation Collage (Collage Animation)
Which is always associated with this type of animated films is a technique that is free to develop our desire to move objects at will on the table an animation camera stand. Technique is quite simple and easy with few ingredients that can be used; piece of paper, portrait, pictures, letters or combination of these. Pictures and a variety of materials used, arranged in such a way then gradually revamped to form a new array, where each change of attachment was photographed with a camera into a form of animated film that is free.
The development of an enterprise, a network diagram in the body of organisms, making the title credits in a movie story and so forth.
5. Use of Animation Film
The use of animated film as a form of visual impaired pantara (audio-visual medium), quite an important role in spreading the message or idea to be conveyed to the public. Animated films are used in:
1. Commercial television, film animation used with commercial purposes, such as Wan movies on television, as the insertion of events television program, in the form of short messages to the viewers and the film entertainment.
2. Movies: Film animation as a movie can be a long story, short story films, and film inserts for the Man in the cinema.
3. Government Services; Film animation is used as a propaganda film, lighting and film education.
4. Company; animated films are used as film public relations (public relations) such as: film lighting, film education and propaganda films or films Man product introductions.
Types of Animation
Animation that used to have a simple principle, now has developed into several types, namely:
2D Animation, 3D Animation, Animation soil Hat (Clay Animation), Japanese Animation (Anime).
a. Animation 2D (2 Dimension)
Animation is the most familiar with our daily life. Also called cartoons. Cartoon Cartoon comes from the word, which means cute pictures. Indeed, the cartoon was mostly a funny film. For example many, both on TV and in Movies. For example: Looney Tunes, Pink Panther, Tom and Jerry, Scooby Doo, Doraemon, Mulan, Lion King, Brother Bear, Spirit, and more. Although most of the popular Disney movie, but not as the father of the Walt Disney animated cartoon. Another example is Felix The Cat, the black cat. Age of the cat was already quite old, he was created by Otto Messmer in 1919. But unfortunately, due to poor distribution, so we're difficult to find his films. Compare with Walt Disney that still exist such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) and Pinocchio (1940).
b. Animation 3D (3 Dimension)
The development of technology and computers make 3D animation techniques and advanced growing rapidly. 3D animation is the development of 2D animation. With 3D animation, the characters are shown more alive and real, close to the original human form. Since artificial Disney Toy Story (Pixar Studios), the film studio world berlombalombalah produce similar films. Bermunculanlah, Bugs Life, AntZ, Dinosaurs, Final Fantasy, Toy Story 2, Monsters Inc.., Up to Finding Nemo, The Incredible, Shark Tale. Cars, Valian. All of them also called 3D animation or CGI (Computer Generated Imagery).
c. Animation Clay (Clay Animation)
They say, though now its time Pizza and Steak, but sometimes we still miss with traditional dishes like tamarind vegetables. The expression is suitable for animation Clay Animation.
This type most often we hear and found among other types. In fact this animation technique not including new techniques such as Toy Story opened a new era of 3D animation. In fact, arguably animated ancestor. Because the first animation in the form CIayAnimation. Although the name clay (clay), which are used clay is not unusual. This animation uses plasticin, flexible material such as chewing gum found in 1897. The characters in Clay animation created by using a special frame to frame his body, then the framework is covered with plasficine according to figures form the wish to be made. Body parts of this framework, such as heads, hands, feet, sinfulness removed and installed again. Once the characters are ready, then photographed movement per movement. The images are then combined into an image that can be moved as we watched the movie. Clay animation is one type of stop-motion picture. First Clay Animation movie was released in February 1908 titled, A Sculptors Welsh Rarebit Nightmare. For some time ago also, outstanding clay film, entitled Chicken Run.
d. Japanese Animation (Anime)
The films discussed above are mostly made in America and Europe. However, Japan was no less a matter of animation. Japan has a lot of producing anime (a term for Japanese animation). Unlike American animation, Japanese anime is not all destined for the children, even adult.
Speaking of anime, there are legendary figures, namely Dr. Osamu Tezuka. He created Tetsuwan Atom or better known as Astro Boy. Like the American or European animation films, Bollywood is also composed of several kinds, but what distinguishes not weave, but the format, namely the television series, OVA, and movie theaters.
Animation Maker Software
In the market today have many outstanding softwarwe animation maker, be it 2D or 3D. For more details, see list below is compiled based on the criteria.
Animation Software 2 Dimension:
Macromedia Flash, CoRETAS, Corel RAVE, After Effects, Moho, CreaToon, ToonBoom, Autodesk Animaton (1990s), etc.
Animation Software 3 Dimensions:
Maya, 3D Studio Max, Maxon Cinema 4 D, LightWave, Softlmage, Poser, Motion Builder, Hash Animation Master, Wings 3D, Carrara, Infini-D, Canoma d
Development of Animation In Indonesia
What about the development of animation in Indonesia alone? In the 1980s, there are animated films Indonesian products so that the Huma television series that became a favorite of children at the time. In 2004, a history of per-Animasian Indonesia with a long feature film made the first 3D animated by Studio invisible Jogja working with Vision Group Forkab Pimp. Garin Nugroho, a 3D animation film "Homeland" with director Gangsar Waskito.